* As defined by maltodextrin, high amount of magnesium, artificial flavors, artificial colors & fluff ingredients

Immediately Read This Letter From Start To Finish...

Let me begin by saying this is a letter I NEVER thought I'd write...

The LAST thing I ever wanted to do was get into the "Pre-Workout Pump" market.

After all, it's completely crowded with the same damn product over and over and again... disguised in different packaging...

...In fact, it's rather nauseating to say the least...I mean, how many times can someone do the same thing?

With that said, I like having a ton of energy, strength, stamina & endurance for my workouts...I mean, who doesn't?

And there's nothing like the right combination of compounds taken pre-workout to deliver awesome workout after awesome workout.

...After all, if your workouts suck, you can all but forget about making killer progress anytime soon...

So for the past 3 years, I've been drinking my own "mad elixir" before each workout.

...And, let me stress again, this was only intended for my own personal use...

Before I knew it, I was supplying half the gym, and many of my Internet friends, with my pre-workout concoction...

They'd ask me what I was drinking, ask if they could "try it"...then they simply couldn't "train without it."...

I didn't have a name for this drink originally, but it quickly became known as "USPlabs Jack3d" because it made everyone lift more weight, pump out more reps and have crazy, lasting energy along with sick, muscle-engorging pumps...

...Because handing out supplements at the gym was not my first priority (and quite frankly, a massive pain in the ass at times), I'd forget to bring some or run out from time to time...

Needless to say people were on my case and bugging me to release it. I kept telling them "I want absolutely nothing to do with this."


"Wow, People DO Need This."

...But it wasn't until I started explaining how much healthier and better my little concoction was that I realized I probably should bottle this up and let the hardcore guys get their hands on it...

But again, I really didn't want to play in the pre-workout game. Just didn't excite me...

So, under immense pressure, I decided to do a small run of USPlabs Jack3d and only release it on the Internet for now...

...That way, I didn't' have to advertise it, it wouldn't take away from USPlabs focus and it would simply spread by word-of-mouth.

USPlabs Jack3d is easily the most intense pre-workout product I have ever used. The amount of energy & focus are perfect, my pumps and vascularity were out of control but most importantly; I felt great all workout. No crash, no bloat, no headaches, no blow workouts. I did not have to make my normal 'breaks' that I am so used to because of my old pre-workout product, XXXXXXXXX (withheld). Within my first week of USPlabs Jack3d powered training session, I nailed a 10 rep deadlift personal record of 495x10. Thanks for tapping into your 'secret stash' that Jacob! I am so pumped that this is available now (No pun intended)!
Zack VanReenen - Rochester, New York

You might be saying to yourself, "Jacob, why not just use one of the 3,000 pre-workout formulas already on the market?"

Excellent question, and that would have been MUCH easier than all of this, but in a nutshell, here's why...

Up to 77% of pre-workout powders are nothing but unhealthy, Insulin-soaring, fat-storing fillers!

Shocking, but true, over three-fourth's of what you consume on a daily basis is nothing but ineffective filler that can actually cause you to GAIN bodyfat!

...Kind of defeats the purpose if you ask me...

Not only is this detrimental to your gains, but it shoots prices through the roof.

...After all, it costs big bucks to ship now-a-days. And, larger packaging costs more than smaller packaging. In essence, you're not only paying for fillers, but footing the shipping bill as well!

So why do these companies do this? It's simple really...

Larger packaging takes up more shelf space. And, the consumer has been trained to think "bigger is better" you are fooled into thinking you are getting more active ingredients than you really are.

But in this case, bigger not only means more expensive, but more dangerous as well...

These fillers mainly consist of evil, fattening maltodextrin, large amounts of magnesium & artificial dyes...Not good to say the least...

Here's the breakdown....

MALTODEXTRIN (Worse Than Sugar!)

We all know maltodextrin is an absolute killer to your physique, causing insulin to shoot through the roof and put your body into fat storing mode (NOT what you want any time, let alone as you're headed into your workout)...

Many of you reading this just got the answer to why your fat loss has come to a dead halt...The supplement promoted to help, is ultimately hindering your goals...I'd be pissed off!

I hear all the time about guys flipping out (rightfully so)  that their protein powder contains a few grams of why in the word is it ok for a pre-workout powder to contain a shitload of them? And of the worst possible kind...

It's not...and USPlabs Jack3d is here to end that...

Here's some FACTS about maltodextrin:

  • Maltodextrin has a glycemic index of 105 – That's sky-high on the chart - 5 Points higher than Glucose & 44 points higher than sucrose (Yep, that's straight-up table sugar!)
  • Maltodextrin is found in large quantities in all of the top selling pre-workout pump products.
  • Most products contain between 6 to 11 grams of maltodextrin per scoop - With 2-3 scoops being required for effective dose!
  • A "hardcore" dose of popular powders will yield up to 33 grams of Maltodextrin! That's 72-132 calories super-high GI carbs! Same as a can of soda!!
  • Maltodextrin is simply added as a filler to deceive you into thinking you are getting more for your money.
  • And, to make things even more shady, Maltodextrin is often cleverly disguised on the label as "glucose polymers."  How do we know they are being deceptive? That's a lot of damn carbs – why do they try to disguise it?
  • High amounts of maltodextrin is what you pay for with those other formulas. Shipping, bigger packages & bottles all cost more. Who do you think is covering these costs?

Is your pre-workout product making you fat?

...If it has maltodextrin (i.e. "glucose polymers") then it certainly is.


The leading Pre-workout Pump products are LOADED with Magnesium.

Now, we need magnesium for a lot of reasons, but more is NOT better & can have serious side effects and health risks. Here's some magnesium facts...

  • National Academy of Sciences has set the upper tolerable limit of magnesium for adults at 350mg/day – that's equivalent to just one scoop of most products.
  • Some products use Magnesium Glycerophosphate - which is only 10% active. In order for them to get 350mg of active Magnesium per scoop, they must use a whopping 3500mg of Magnesium Gylcerophosphate – That's over 10 grams of magnesium per 3-scoop serving – which is just about the therapeutic dose prescribed by doctors for constipation!
  • Magnesium is also used as a filler - 3.5 grams each scoop is compromised from the Magnesium.
  • Magnesium at high doses is used therapeutically as a laxative.
  • The high Magnesium in this product is the reason people get the runs, not because of the stimulant effect.

This is very unhealthy and toxic when consumed regularly.

How many times do we have to read about guys having to leave their workouts - or missing their workouts entirely - because they were stuck in the bathroom?

Why take a product that is supposed to get you pumped for the gym when it will cause you to have to skip the gym?

It's the magnesium that's causing this, NOT the stimulants...

High doses of magnesium are used in the medical field as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of constipation (it causes diarrhea).

All of this just so it looks like you are getting more product than you really are? Hmm...

Sure, this isn't the most pleasant conversation ever, but you should know the facts.

USPlabs Jack3d contains no magnesium, so there's no issues.


Virtually all pre-workout powders contain an enormous amount of artificial coloring at levels deemed extremely dangerous...

Strange how they forgot to put that on the label...

The leading pre-workout pump products all contain different mixes of artificial food coloring including:

  • Red #40
  • Blue #1
  • Yellow #5
  • Yellow #6
  • Red #5

For example, when you ingest this stuff you're eating petroleum – That's right, straight up coal & tar...yum, yum!!

...And, if you suffer from any kind of ADD or ADHD, these dyes have a significant negative effect on your well-being!

I'm not kidding, this stuff is straight poison...

...In fact, some countries have actually banned certain artificial coloring from their food supply. For example, Red #5 cannot be used in Australia because it's deemed as a significant health threat.

There's a reason handlers of these dyes are required to wear industrial-strength gloves & masks for protection.

Why artificial coloring is allowed in the USA is a whole different issue, but we aren't putting that crap in our powder.

We choose not to put it in our formula.

USPlabs Jack3d ONLY contains natural flavoring and coloring.


I don't understand this, but it seems that people love when there's 500 ingredients in a single product, when it's obvious that the ingredients are added in such miniscule amounts they wouldn't even have an effect on an ant!

I guess it makes you feel all warm and fuzzy inside as it makes you think "Wow, if 2 ingredients are good, 30 must be insane!"

Well, the majority of the ingredients listed are there in trace amounts, meaning they won't do a damn thing for you, except deceive you into thinking you're getting ingredients that will actually help you.

I know our customers are intelligent & demand more and do not fall for the fluff, window dressing BS.

You won't find trace amounts of ingredients in USPlabs Jack3d. Just the ingredients that will deliver dramatic results, every time.

Synergistic Combination is KEY

We have combined some exciting, new compounds with tried and true compounds to deliver a formula that is extremely potent, yet not detrimental to your health.

The biggest factor in this is making a synergistic formula. Not just a bunch of ingredients thrown together haphazardly.

Combine the correct ingredients in the correct amounts and you truly get 1 + 1 = 5!

Motivation and Energy in the Tank

While some products may cause the excitation you need to get motivated to get into the gym and move weight around, but unless you also have some "energy in the tank" you're not going to perform your best.

...Yet, with the key ingredients in USPlabs Jack3d, you'll not only have to force yourself to get out of the gym, but you'll get more repetitions in while you're there. More repetitions will ultimately lead to more muscle mass.

In essence, this product hits both angles, allowing you to increase strength, power, focus and stamina, while providing the motivation to get into the gym. The end result can lead to better performance in the gym and ultimately, more muscle mass.


Schizandrol A

This compound is an exciting one...

It has not only been shown to outperform amphetamine in cognitive tasks involving focus, but it has also been shown to greatly increase the capacity of muscles to perform work,while also increasing physical force. In essence, it is able to provide a stimulating effect to the body and mind [1].

Last, but certainly not least; unlike various stimulants which can increase catabolic hormone levels (i.e. glucocorticoids), this compound has been shown to lower levels of hormones like cortisol in animal models [2].

And, as we all know, cortisol is dramatically increased during a workout and can stop muscle growth in its tracks.

Schizandrol A will help keep cortisol at bay so you can get bigger, stronger & leaner!

Don't get confused with the cheap, ineffective Shizandra found in some other products. Our Schizandrol A is a potent Engineered Extract only found in USPlabs Jack3d.


Caffeine belongs to the family of methylxanthine compounds. It's able to stimulate the CNS, while also stimulating contractility of skeletal muscle directly and this may partially be due to the release of catecholamines such as norepinephrine.

Caffeine has the benefit of fighting fatigue and drowsiness; enhancing the flow of thoughts; increasing alertness and improving intellectual efforts along with producing euphoria or a sense of well-being in some cases. Just as these methylxanthines can increase the effectiveness of compounds such as ephedrine, it is thought that it may do the same for the unique compound found in Geranium [3-6].

In terms of specifics, at the cortical level, caffeine is also thought to promote increased wakefulness or vigilance, via adenosine receptor antagonism, causing stimulation of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and reinforcing inhibition exerted upon sleep-promoting GABA neurons. The stimulant effects are exerted directly upon the cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata, and spinal cord.

...Most formulas just throw in a ton of caffeine and hope for the best.

USPlabs Jack3d has a precise blend of compounds that will not only get you flying through your workouts like a mad man, but will allow you to have hours upon hours of energy without a harsh crash at the end...

Jack3d's ingredients are perfectly blended for a powerful synergistic effect...

This is one area where USPlabs Jack3d truly separates itself. It's not just a ton of caffeine thrown in so you can "feel it." It's the proper stimulants in the proper dosages.


Beta-alanine serves as the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine and as such, it has been shown that by supplementing with beta-alanine, you can greatly increase carnosine levels in skeletal muscle tissue.

Carnosine is an extremely important dipeptide that is generally present in rather high concentrations in skeletal muscle, though it is also found in nervous tissue and other excitable tissues as well [12,13].

It is so important because it acts as a buffer of sorts, preventing the increase of acidity or Hydrogen ion accumulation in skeletal muscle; something which is thought to contribute to the fatiguing of muscles.

In short, you are able to delay fatigue; allowing you to lift for longer periods.

It is no coincidence that the most explosive athletes (e.g. sprinters) in the world have higher carnosine levels in their muscles. Looking to the animals of our world provides us with yet another example; the most explosive animals such as greyhounds and thoroughbred horses also have the highest level of carnosine in their muscle tissue as well.
Creatine Monohydrate

While we may negate the increase in Hydrogen ion levels in skeletal muscle by increasing carnosine levels, we still must overcome one more obstacle in order to allow us to prevent fatigue while working out. In this case, we must use a compound which can ultimately increase the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in muscle. ATP, as we all know, is a high energy nucleotide which acts as the major energy carrying molecule in our bodies.

Consequently, muscle fatigue is also related to energy loss in skeletal muscle, specifically, ATP being converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). In effect, one phosphate group is lost and must be replenished in order for the muscle cell to continue on working.

By supplementing with creatine, we are able to increase the levels of phosphocreatine in muscle. Phosphocreatine is a high energy buffering compound which is able to donate a phosphate group to ADP, allowing the formation of ATP once again.

In short, we can prevent or reduce fatigue from occurring by increasing phosphocreatine levels, which in turn will allow for the regeneration of ATP from ADP.

By addressing both the regeneration of ATP, while also limiting Hydrogen ion accumulation, we are able to provide a one-two combination that effectively reduces fatigue to an amazing degree.

If this weren't enough, the compound we have included may also increase the swelling of muscle cells, possibly increasing protein synthesis or inhibiting catabolism; the end result being an increase in muscle mass.

While creatine monohydrate isn't new or ground-breaking, it's scientifically sound, proven millions of times over in the real-world and an absolute must in any pre-workout formula [8-11].

The "Best" Creatine?

It seems there have been a myriad of creatine products on the market in recent years; each and every one of them claim to improve upon the original creatine monohydrate. Yet, not one of them has ever been able to do so. Though, should this really be a surprise?

It has been known for some time now that creatine monohydrate's bioavailability is nearly 100%, despite many marketing attempts to make you believe otherwise.

Yet, each one of these products has claimed that they could improve the product in some way.

The only reason for the stomach issues associated with creatine was the loading phase that was promoted when creatine first came out. This has since been disproven & NOT needed to achieve desired results...

First it was the effervescent formulations, claiming that the buffered product could resist acidic degradation of creatine to creatinine in the stomach, while at the same time, decreasing the transit time for the creatine to enter the small intestine from the stomach, again, hypothetically reducing the amount of creatine degradation.

Last, it was supposed to improve solubility of the creatine in solution, hypothetically resulting in improved absorption. Yet, scientific studies showed no improvement in absorption or bioavailability with these formulations.

The next attempt was to improve creatine absorption with various salts, the latest of which appear to be tri-creatine citrate and creatine pyruvate. Yet again, as you would expect, studies have shown no significant increase in bioavailability over regular creatine monohydrate.

Don't be fooled by slick marketing; some manufacturers may cite a study which had shown slightly greater (although not statistically significant and hence not accepted as likely being unique) plasma concentrations of creatine with the pyruvate salt in particular.

However, they will most certainly and conveniently leave out the scientists' own conclusions, "The higher plasma concentration with Creatine Pyruvate is unlikely to have been due to greater bioavailability, since the bioavailability of Creatine Monohydrate is known to be close to 100%" and "It is questionable if the small differences observed in the plasma concentrations with the three treatments would have any effect on the increase in creatine in muscle."

Yet another example of these futile attempts includes the creatine ethyl ester. This particular product also boasted claims of improved bioavailability by preventing the degradation of creatine to creatinine in the stomach, while also improving physiochemical properties conducive of improved bioavailability.

Yet again, the product failed to do so. In fact, not only did the addition of the ethyl ester not help, it actually was shown to accelerate the degradation of creatine to creatinine in an acidic solution. It can be estimated from such studies that the bioavailability of the creatine ethyl ester is actually far less than regular creatine monohydrate, which again, is already nearly 100% to begin with.

Perhaps other manufacturers will finally get the hint that creatine monohydrate isn't going to be improved upon as there is virtually no room for improvement. Yet, that won't stop them as history has shown.

Creatine monohydrate after all is an effective product. In fact, it's probably one of, if not the most scientifically validated dietary supplement in existence and it delivers real world results as well.

But remember, the marketing arm of these companies are banking on the fact that creatine is such a great supplement; a supplement that has become a staple for nearly all athletes and weightlifters, that they want to create their own unique version, touting some supposed added benefits. But as you've learned, there is no such thing.

"Jacob, doesn't creatine need a delivery system?"

Delivery Systems? Delivery Systems? You Talkin' Bout Delivery Systems?

The lack of bio-availability is NOT what causes the side effects from creatine.

It's the "loading phase" (20-30 grams per day!) that was initially touted (and still used by some today) when creatine first hit the shelves in the 90's...

Absolutely "genius" in marketing, as the "loading phase" quadrupled initial sales and caused an almost instant water weight gain so users were thrilled...

However, it wasn't all sunshine...

Peak creatine concentration in the body has a ceiling. Meaning, when peak concentration is reached, the body has no more room for the extra creatine...

So, it "flushes" it out...And this is why creatine got a bad rap for not "absorbing" when, in essence, it was poor application...

You only need a few grams of creatine per day, that's it...

After 7-14 days, whether you take 30 grams of creatine a day or 2 grams of creatine a day, your blood concentration levels of creatine will be exactly the same...

Geranium (1,3-Dimethylamylamine)

Geranium has a long history of being used for many purposes in the food supply. It contains a compound that can provide a boost to your workouts & help you power through tough set after tough set - always ready to take on the next challenge.

L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG)

This particular compound was included in the formula as it may also increase strength and peak power performance.

Yet as an added benefit, by including a very precise amount, in combination with other ingredients, one can also experience an increase in vasodilation, which can potentially increase the flow of nutrients to skeletal muscle, thereby enhancing muscular recovery.

In addition, this vasodilation may result in increased glycogen storage, which in turn may increase cellular swelling of skeletal muscle [14]. Based on animal models, this cellular swelling is hypothetically capable of producing anabolic effects in skeletal muscle, while at the same time, producing an increased "pumped" sensation in muscle, making your workouts all the more pleasing.


You may have noticed the ultra-concentration trend over the last few years that virtually every major corporation has used to conserve energy, reduce waste and lower costs.
From cars to food to even household items like dish detergent...

With the way our environment & economy is, we simply cannot afford any waste whatsoever. The price is just too high. The supplement industry is no different...

As mentioned above, USPlabs Jack3d contains as many servings, and is more potent, than products three or four times its size. I mean, who the heck wants to pay for unnecessary fillers?

USPlabs Jack3d is ultra-concentrated with only the highest quality ingredients available.

No fillers, no artificial flavors, no dyes & Minimal packaging means the absolute strongest, healthiest and best value for you.

How Does It Taste?

In a word...AMAZING!

Sure, you'll hear that from most companies, yet virtually all of the pre-workout drinks on the market are, at best, tolerable.

And, let's be honest, most taste like crap...

...In addition, most drinks require 16-20oz of water (hey, all those fillers have to dissolve somehow!), leaving you bloated & sluggish...NOT the best environment for attacking the weights.

USPlabs Jack3d requires only 4-8oz and is probably the best tasting pre-workout drink... ever!

With pleasant Tropical Fruit Punch & Lemon-Lime flavors that goes down smooth and refreshing, you'll be shocked it's as potent as it is - it's simply a joy to drink!

Quick USPlabs Jack3d RECAP
  1. Key Ingredients may significantly enhances intensity, strength, energy, power, endurance, pumps & recovery
  2. No sugars
  3. No calories
  4. No Maltodextrin
  5. No More Monster Doses Of Magnesium
  6. No dangerous artificial dyes
  7. No filler ingredients-You are not paying for 2 base ingredients and 20 filler ingredients
  8. We are augmenting 3 systems to work together so they can keep up with each other during the workout. This is TRUE synergism.
  9. GREAT taste!
  10. Ultra-concentrated – needs only 4-8 ounces of water per serving!
  11. The BEST damn value you’ll ever find in a pre-workout product


P.S. To truly maximize the result of any supplement, you must combine with proper nutrition & exercise plans. Feel free to visit our forums for information.

P.P.S When USPlabs Jack3d arrives at your door and you tear it open to use, DO NOT use a rounded scoop. Remember, USPlabs Jack3d is ULTRA-concentrated so you must use level scoops. I'm serious, the scoops are precisely measured and directions must be followed.

P.P.P.S – It’s mandatory that athletes or anyone subject to testing check with their governing body before using this product. Read the entire label, including directions & any precautions & warnings.


Directions: As a dietary supplement, mix 1 Ultra-Concentrated scoop (5.5 grams) with 4-8 ounces of cold water and consume 30-45 minutes before beginning activity. This is to be done the first three (3) times using the product. Under no circumstances should the initial dose be exceeded or the warnings on this bottle be ignored. Beginning with the 4th time using the product, dose may be increased by, but not more than, ½ of a scoop (2.75 grams). The ideal individual dose for workout domination may vary between 1-3 scoops.

DO NOT EXCEED 1 DOSE OR 3 SCOOPS IN ANY 24 HOUR PERIOD. DO NOT USE MORE THAN 5 DAYS OUT OF ANY 7 DAY PERIOD. Exceeding the recommended amounts or not following directions may lead to unwanted effects. Consume at least 125 fl. oz. of liquid per day for men and 91 fl. oz. of liquid per day for women while taking this product.

Contents may settle after shipping. Shake container prior to each use to redistribute ingredients. Moisture and humidity can cause clumping and discoloration. Store in cool dry place. Discard after expiration date.

Warning This product is only intended to be consumed by healthy adults 18 years of age or older. Before using this product consult with your physician if you are using any prescription or over the counter medication or if you have any pre-existing medical condition including but not limited to: high or low blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, stroke, heart, liver, kidney or thyroid disease, seizure disorder, psychiatric disease, diabetes, difficulty urinating due to prostate enlargement or if you are taking a MAOI (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor) or any other medication. This product contains caffeine and should not be taken by individuals wishing to eliminate this ingredient from their diet. Discontinue use 2 weeks prior to surgery. Do not use in combination with caffeine or any stimulants from other sources whatsoever, including but not limited to, coffee, tea, soda and other dietary supplements or medications. Do not combine with alcohol. Discontinue use and consult your health care professional if you experience any adverse reaction to this product. Do not exceed recommended serving. Do not use if safety seal is broken or missing. Do not use for more than 5 out of 7 consecutive days. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

Other Ingredients: Citric Acid, Natural Flavors, Sucralose, Acesulfame Potassium, Silicon Dioxide, Vegetable Stearate, Beta Carotene (For Color).

This product is produced in a facility that processes Milk and Soy ingredients Do not use if you are, or may become, pregnant.


  1. Panossian A, Wagner H. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration. Phytother Res. 2005 Oct;19(10):819-838
  2. Lee S, Kim DH, Jung JW, et al. Schizandra chinensis and Scutellaria baicalensis counter stress behaviors in mice. Phytother Res. 2007 Dec;21(12):1187-1192
  3. Glaister M, Howatson G, Abraham CS, et al. Caffeine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Oct;40(10):1835:1840
  4. Childs E, de Wit H. Enhanced mood and psychomotor performance by a caffeine-containing energy capsule in fatigued individuals. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008 Feb;16(1):13-21
  5. Smith A. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Sep;40(9):1243:1255
  6. Park ND, Maresca RD, McKibans KI, et al. Caffeines enhancement of maximal voluntary strength and activation in uninjured but not injured muscle. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Dec;18(6):639-652
  7. Sato J, Nakata H, Owada E, et al. Influence of usual intake of dietary caffeine on single-dose kinetics of theophylline in healthy human subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 44 (3):295-8
  8. Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Mar;32(3):654-658
  9. Rawson ES, Volek JS. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Nov;17(4):822-831 
  10. Safdar A, Yardley NJ, Snow R, et al. Global and targeted gene expression and protein content in skeletal muscle of young men following short-term creatine monohydrate supplementation. Physiol Genomics. 2008 Jan 17;32(2):219-228
  11. Chwalbiñska-Moneta J. Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Jun;13(2):173-183
  12. Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men: a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 11;6:5
  13. Stout JR, Cramer JT, Mielke M, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res. 2006 Nov;20(4):928-931
  14. Low SY, Rennie MJ, Taylor PM. “Modulation of glycogen synthesis in rat skeletal muscle by changes in cell volume.” J Physiol. 1996 Sep 1;495 ( Pt 2):299-303.
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